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Blood cancer

What is blood cancer?

Cancer Is The Uncontrolled Growth Of Cells Within The Body. Usually, All Of Our Cells Have A Specific Lifespan Of Days To Years That Is Genetically Programmed In Our DNA. When Our DNA Becomes Damaged, Either Through The Aging Process, Exposure To Toxins Such As Radiation Or Chemicals Or Through Inherited Genes, Some Cells Do Not Die A Natural Death But Continue To Grow Or Divide To Produce More Abnormal Cells. As They Do, They Form New Cells With The Same Genetic Misinformation. These Extra Cells May Form Masses Or Tumours That Can Be Either Malignant Or Benign Or Affect The Bone Marrow, Leading To Changes In The Quality Of Our Blood Cells.

Nearly 1 Million People Are Diagnosed With Blood Cancer Every Year. While Some Types Are Associated With Older Individuals, Others Develop In The Very Young, Making This One Of The Few Paediatric Cancer Forms. Blood Cancers Are Responsible For Up To 7% Of All Cancers And Are Particularly Difficult To Detect In Early Stages As There Are No Visible Signs. There Are Over A Hundred Different But Very Specific Types Of Blood Cancer, Although The Majority Of These Are Found Within The Main Categories Of Leukaemia, Lymphoma And Multiple Myeloma.

The Term Blood Cancer Is A Little Too Specific As It Also Includes Cancer Of The Lymph System. This Should Not Be Confused With Other Cancers Travelling Via Lymph Nodes And Blood To Other Parts Of The Body (Metastasis) Such As Metastasized Breast Cancer Or Prostate Cancer, For Example. Blood Cancer Is Also Not A Cancer Of The Vessels That Carry Blood And Lymph. It Is Possible That The Spleen And Liver Are Affected; The Spleen Is A Blood Storage Organ And The Liver Detoxifies, Filtering More Than A Litre Of Blood Every Minute. In Fact, At Any One Time, The Liver Contains 10% Of Your Total Blood Volume. If You Have Read The Term Hepatosplenomegaly In Your Medical Notes, These Two Organs May Have Become Enlarged.

Blood Cancer In Its Primary Form Begins In The Cells Of The Blood, Bone Marrow And Lymph Nodes. Treatment Involves The Healing Or Replacement Of The Part Of The Body That Produces New Blood And Lymph Cells - The Bone Marrow. Bone Marrow Transplants Must Match The Recipient’s Cell Type. Even So, Only 30% Of A Transplanted Tissue Is Obtained From Relatives. The Other 70% Is Voluntarily Donated By Blood Marrow Donors.

Risk Factors Are Multiple, Ranging From Pollution To Family History. Screening For Blood Cancer In Higher-Risk Groups Are Limited To Blood Tests That Show The Presence Of Low Numbers Or Abnormal Cells And Confirmation Of Blood Cancer Requires A Bone Marrow Biopsy.

Understanding Blood Cancers Means Being Aware Of The Role Of The Bone Marrow. This Is A Sponge-Like Tissue Found In The Centre Of Some Bones. Bone Marrow Comes In Two Types, Red And Yellow. While Yellow Bone Marrow Stores Fat, Red Bone Marrow Produces The Early Forms Of All Blood Cells. Redbone Marrow Is Primarily Found In The Bones Of The Pelvis, Sternum And Femur (Thigh Bone). These Small Areas Can Produce Approximately 500 Billion Cells Every Day In A Manufacturing Process Known As Haematopoiesis. As We Grow Older, The Percentage Of Red Bone Marrow Decreases.

Understanding blood cancer

Different Types Of Blood Cells – In Fact, Different Types Of All Cells - Are Not Immediately Produced In Their Functional Form But Begin From A Single, Same Cell. You May Have Heard About Stem Cells, And This Is Where They Fit In. Stem Cells Can Be Found All Over The Body And Are Currently A Topic Of Much Discussion. If We Can Ensure This Original Cell Type Is Not Abnormal, Perhaps All Of The Cells That Follow Can Be Normal, Too. This Could Be The Therapy That, In The Future, Contributes To The End Of All Cancer; However, Research Is Still Very Much In Its Infancy. Even So, Stem Cell Therapy Is An Available Treatment But Should Only Ever Be Prescribed And Carried Out In An Approved Clinic. Currently, Diseases And Disorders Such As Cancer, Multiple Sclerosis, Type I Diabetes And Even Damaged Knee Cartilage Are Being Successfully Treated By Way Of Stem Cell Transplants.

Furthermore, While We Used To Believe Stem Cells Of The Bone Marrow Only Produced Blood Cells, We Are Now Beginning To Discover That These Cells Can Change (Differentiate) Into Different Cell Types. A Stem Cell Of The Blood Can Be Engineered To Produce Heart Muscle, For Example. Even Better Than This, Scientists Can Now Turn Mature (Differentiated) Cells Back Into Stem Cells By Reprogramming Their DNA. You May Have Heard Of CRISPR. This Is A Particular Method Of Cutting Away Tiny Areas Of DNA That Control A Particular Cell Function And Introducing A Different Piece That Can Change The Cell Type. This Also Means That All That Cell’s Descendants Will Continue In This Changed Form. This Field Of Research Is Called Genome Editing. 

Stem Cell Therapy Or Regenerative Medicine May Have A Long Way To Go For Some Diseases But It Has Been The Basis Of Blood Cell Cancer Treatment For Many Years. All Blood Cell Types – Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells And Blood Platelets – Originate From A Single Pluripotential Stem Cell That Can Be Found In Embryos, Amniotic Fluid Or Bone Marrow. As Scientific Research Using Human Embryos Is Neither Ethically Acceptable Nor Legal In Most Countries, New Research Paths Such As Converting Adult Cells Into Stem Cells Are Becoming More Advanced. 

In The Human Body, A Pluripotential Stem Cell Of The Bone Marrow, Also Known As The Haematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC), Changes Into One Of Two Slightly More Developed Forms: A Myeloid Stem Cell Or A Lymphoid Stem Cell.

The Following Phase (The Progenitor Phase) Describes The Next Group Of Changes That Turn Myeloid And Lymphoid Stem Cells Into A Number Of Letter-Coded Cells. These Intermediate Cells Have No Function As Blood Cells And Must Go Through Further Changes.

These Further Changes Form The Precursor Phase. Precursor Cells Are Not Functional And May Be Referred To As Blasts. For Example, A Lymphoid Stem Cell Will Progressively Become Either A B Lymphoblast Or A T Lymphoblast In The Precursor Phase.

Precursor Blood Cells Then Leave The Bone Marrow And Become Functional Blood Cells In The Blood Or Lymph. Myeloid Stem Cells, Through All The Preceding Stages, Eventually Become Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes), Blood Platelets (To Help The Blood To Clot) And White Blood Cells In The Form Of Neutrophils, Monocytes, Eosinophils And Basophils. Understanding What These Cell Types Do Helps Us To Understand The Symptoms Of Blood Cancer. Lymphoid Stem Cells Become B And T Lymphocytes (Lymph Cells).

Two Myeloid Cell Types Then Differentiate Further When They Leave The Blood Or Lymph To Enter Tissues. These Are Monocytes That Become Bacteria-Digesting Cells Called Macrophages, And B Lymphocytes That Become Plasma Cells.

The Four Types Of White Blood Cells Have Specific Functions That Explain The Symptoms Of Leukaemia. Neutrophils Are The First Cells To Reach The Scene When The Body Senses Infection Or Toxins And When Healthy, These Cells Can Stop You From Becoming Ill. The Monocytes That Turn Into Macrophages Travel Into The Tissues To Destroy Dead Cells, Toxins And Even Cancer Cells. Eosinophils Help Us To Fight Viruses And Parasites But Also Release Chemicals That Contribute To Inflammation And Allergic Reactions. Finally, Basophils Contribute To Inflammation And Allergic Reactions And Help To Stop The Blood From Clotting.

The Two Types Of Lymphocyte Cells (A Little Confusingly, These Are Also White Blood Cells But Originate From A Different Stem Cell) Are Essential For Our Immunity And Explain The Symptoms Of Lymphoma. B-Lymphocytes Connect To Previously-Produced Antibodies. Antibodies Are Substances Manufactured In The Body That Can Recognise Harmful Substances. When A B-Lymphocyte Connects With An Antibody, It Becomes A Plasma Cell. Plasma Cells Produce And Release Thousands Of Antibodies.

T-Lymphocytes (The Second Type Of Lymphocyte) Cause Inflammation, Help B-Lymphocytes Turn Into Plasma Cells And Assist With The Design And Manufacture Of Antibodies. This Is Why Lymphoma Leads To An Inability To Fight Certain Infections And Why You May Have To Be Isolated From Other People. 

Blood Platelets Are More Like Shards Of Cells Rather Than Cells Themselves. They Do Not Contain DNA So You Cannot Have Direct Cancer Of The Platelets. However, If Your Bone Marrow Is Not Functioning As It Should, Less Platelets May Be Produced And It Will Be Difficult For Your Blood To Clot Naturally. If Too Many Platelets Are Present Through Badly-Functioning Bone Marrow, You May Need To Take Blood-Thinning Medication To Prevent Blood Clots.

Finally, Red Blood Cells Are Responsible For Carrying Oxygen Throughout The Body And Also Remove Poisonous Carbon Dioxide Gas. These Cells Do Not Contain DNA So You Cannot Have Cancer Of The Red Blood Cells. However, If The Bone Marrow Is Not Functioning As It Should You May Experience Anaemia; Some Parts Of Your Body May Not Receive Enough Oxygen And You Will Feel Extremely Tired And Short Of Breath.

Are there different types of blood cancer?

Blood Cancer Is Divided Into Three Main Groups, Each Group Consisting Of Multiple Subtypes. Your Medical Notes May Therefore Be A Little Difficult To Understand. Specific Blood Cancer Types Are Based Upon The Location And Type Of Their Abnormal Cells. 

Leukaemia Is So Named Because The Cells Involved Are White Blood Cells; The Prefix Leuk Refers To White. Because There Are Many Different Forms Of White Blood Cells, There Are Similarly Different Varieties Of Leukaemia. For Example, Cancer Of The Plasma Cells Is Called Myeloma And Cancer Of The Lymphocytes, Lymphoma. Confusingly, Most Publications List Leukaemia, Lymphoma And Multiple Myeloma As Three Different Groups, Even Though They All Concern White Blood Cells. Because Even Scientific Publications Use These Groups, This Article Will Do The Same.

Leukaemia

Leukaemia Originates In The Undeveloped White Blood Cells Of The Bone Marrow. Lymphocytic Leukaemia’s Are Not The Same As Lymphoma. Leukaemia’s Develop In The Bone Marrow And Lymphoma Originates In The Lymph And Lymph Nodes. Additionally, Myeloid Leukaemia’s Are Not The Same As Multiple Myeloma, Due To Their Different Types Of Affected White Cell Types, Even Though Both Types Are Located In The Bone Marrow.

Leukaemia Is Grouped According To The Progression Of The Disease – Acute (Rapid) Or Chronic (Slowly). Certain Types Affect Very Young To Teenage Children. A Paediatric Cancer Diagnosis Is A Psychologically And Emotionally Challenging Time For Both Patient And Family. Remedazo And Its Team Members Work According To A Concentric, Holistic Approach, Understanding The Importance Of Empathy And Correct Communication. Our Team Caters For Family Groups And All Ages; We Can Help To Lighten The Load During This Difficult Time. In Combination With Experienced, Renowned Paediatric Oncologists, You Can Be Sure Your Child Will Receive The Best Treatment In The Right Environment.

Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL)

Rapidly Progressing Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia, Acute Lymphoid Leukaemia Or Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL) Can Occur At Any Age But Is Most Commonly Associated With Children Aged Between 2 And 4 Years Old And Adults Over 45 Years Old. Treatment In Children Is Highly Successful; In Adults, The Chance Of Complete Remission Is Lower But Still Significant.

There Are Two Types Of ALL - B Cell And T Cell. In Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia, Abnormal Lymphoblasts Either Produce Too Many B Or Too Many T Cell Lymphocytes. This Disease Must Be Promptly Treated. The Specific Mutation Of The Cancerous Cell Must Be Tested In Order To Prescribe The Most Effective Treatment.

Causes Are Usually Exposure To Radiation (Previous Therapy) Or Toxins (Pesticides, Car Pollution, Cigarette Smoke, Chemotherapy Drugs), Some Genetic Disorders And Perhaps Auto-Immune Processes. The Exact Causes Of ALL Are Still Unknown. 

Acute Myeloid (Or Myelogenous) Leukaemia (AML)

Another Aggressive Form Of Leukaemia That Affects Both Children And Adults Is Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Or AML; However, This Type Most Commonly Affects People Of Over 75 Years Of Age. As With Other Acute Forms Of Blood Cancer, Treatment Must Be Prompt.

While B And T Cells Help The Immune System, AML Increases The Levels Of Immature Forms Of These Cells That Do Not Function. Causes Are Usually Exposure To Radiation (Previous Therapy) Or Toxins (Pesticides, Benzene, Cigarette Smoke, Chemotherapy Drugs), Polycythaemia, Myodysplastic Syndromes, Some Genetic Disorders (Down’s Syndrome, Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia) And Perhaps Auto-Immune Processes. Because Older Populations Are More Likely To Develop AML, Intensive, High-Dose Treatments Can Create More Problems Than They Cure. This Means Longer Courses Of Therapy With Lower Doses Are Advised.

Aggressive Blood Cancers Require Prompt Treatment By Specialist Oncologists And Haematologists At Well-Equipped Clinics. Remedazo Can Arrange A Long-Term Stay At Accommodation Suited To Your Personal Budget Within An Extremely Short Time Span. We Will Also Assist You In Gathering Or Applying For Necessary Documentation And Plan Every Aspect Of Your Stay According To Your Preferences And Requirements. This Naturally Includes Arranging Consultations With Your Chosen, Highly-Experienced Specialists, Translation Services, Catering, And Transporting You To And From Diagnostic, Treatment And Follow-Up Sessions At Excellent Accredited Medical Facilities.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL)

Chronic Blood Cancers Develop Over Many Years So Children Are Rarely Affected. As Its Full Name Suggests, CLL Is The Slow Increase Of Immature (Non-Functioning) Lymphocytes In The Blood. Unlike Acute Forms, We Do Not Yet Know Why CLL Develops.

As This Is A Chronic Cancer, Symptoms Are Few Until The Cancer Is Advanced. This Also Means That When Detected At An Earlier Stage, You May Not Need Immediate Treatment. 

Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL)

Hairy Cell Leukaemia Is A Subcategory Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia And This Blood Cancer Specifically Affects Immature B Lymphocytes. Under A Microscope, These Abnormal B Cells Look As If They Have Hairs Growing Out Of Them.

This Form Is Slow-Growing And More Likely To Affect Men Over 40 Years Of Age. Like Other Forms Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia, Treatment Can Wait Until Symptoms Occur. 

Chronic Myeloid (Or Myelogenous) Leukaemia (CML)

While Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia Begins As A Slowly Growing Cancer, It Can Develop Into Its Acute Form (AML). CML Is Most Common In Populations Over The Age Of 60 And Is More Likely To Affect Men, But It Is Known To Occur In Both Sexes As Early As 35 To 40 Years Of Age.

We Know Exactly What Causes CML. It Is A Genetic Disorder Caused By A Part Of A Chromosome (Philadelphia Chromosome) In Blood Cell DNA. It Is Possible To Test For This Gene By Way Of A Simple Blood Test Or A Bone Marrow Aspiration With Biopsy (BCR-ABL Test). The Results Of This Test Give The Necessary Information That Allows The Oncologist To Treat You With Specific Oral Drugs. Treatment Courses Are Described Later On.

Treatment Does Not Need To Be As Immediate As Treatment For Acute Forms Of Blood Cancer.

Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)

If You Are Older Than 65 Years Of Age You May Present With One Of Various Myelodysplastic Syndromes. Some Are Very Mild In Form, Some Can Produce Serious Effects. Myelo Refers To The Bone Marrow; In MDS, One Or All Of The Blood Cell Types Cannot Develop Into Mature Forms. It Is Possible For This Cancer To Progress To AML In A Few Months Or Years. This Means Treatment Of Those Forms That Have To Potential To Cause AML Is Always Necessary, While Others Are Monitored But May Not Require Treatment.

Lymphoma

There Are Two Types Of This Rare Cancer Of The Lymphatic System: Hodgkin And Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin Is The Most Common. Lymphomas Tend To Be Slow Growing But This Is Not Always The Case; You May Or May Not Require Treatment.

Hodgkin Lymphoma Affects B-Lymphocytes That Collect As Immature Cells In The Lymph Nodes Causing The Lymph Nodes To Grow In Size. This Enlargement Can Be Visible Or Palpable In The Armpit, Neck Or Groin Area. Hodgkin Lymphoma Is More Likely To Affect Young Adults Or People Over 70 Years Of Age And Is Linked With The Presence Of Immune Disorders, The Epstein-Barr Virus, Immunosuppressive Therapies And Family Members With Hodgkin. Hodgkin Lymphoma Is More Aggressive Than Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma But Can Be Cured.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Is Linked To Chronic Infections Such As HIV, Autoimmune Disorders, The Epstein-Barr Virus, Helicobacter Pylori Infections, Earlier Chemotherapy Or Radiotherapy And Immunosuppressive Treatments. Most Cases Occur In The Over-70 Age Group. Low Grade Lymphoma Is Slow-Growing; High Grade Grows Rapidly And Needs To Be Immediately Treated; However, High Grade Lymphomas Respond Much Better To Treatment Than Low Grades. They Can Often Be Cured. 

Multiple myeloma

The Word Multiple Refers To The Many Areas Of Bone Tissue That Can Be Affected By This Plasma Cell Cancer. These Areas Include The Spine, The Skull, The Pelvis And The Ribs, Any Parts Of Which Can Become Weak And Break.

Black Men Over 60 Years Of Age Are More Likely To Develop Multiple Myeloma But Any Gender Or Race Can Be Affected. If A Direct Family Member Has The Disease, Your Risk Is Higher. It Is Not Always Necessary To Undergo Treatment Unless There Are Associated Symptoms. Plasma Cells, As Previously Mentioned, Manufacture Antibodies That Help The Body To Recognise Foreign Substances. With Multiple Myeloma, Lots Of Antibodies Are Produced But They Do Not Work. These Are Called Monoclonal (M) Proteins; They Can Be Detected By Way Of A Simple Blood Test. Myeloma Cells Can Now Be Found Using A Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) Test That Are Able To Detect A Single Abnormal Cell Surrounded By Of Millions Of Normal Ones.

Blood cancer stages

Most Cancers Are Staged Based On The Size And Spread Of Tumours; However, Blood Cancer Is Staged Differently Because It Affects The Production Of Blood Cells. This Means That Staging Depends Upon The Blood Cell Populations And Ratios Found In A Blood Or Bone Marrow Sample.

In Addition, Oncologists Consider A Range Of Broader Factors Such As Your Age And Medical History When Staging Blood Cancer. 

ALL staging

Staging For Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia Is A Complex Mix Of Cell Biomarkers, Cell Counts, Age And Speed Of Growth. There Are Four Stages. The First Of These Is Newly Diagnosed And Untreated Which May Or May Not Present With Symptoms. The Second Stage Is In Remission, Or Post-Treatment ALL. There Are No Symptoms And Blood Cell Counts Have Returned To Normal. Refractory ALL Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia Which Has Not Responded To Treatment. The Final Stage Is Recurrent ALL, Referring To The Disease’s Return After Having Been In Remission. Stages Are Not Listed In Order Of Severity Or Predicted Response To Treatment.

AML staging

AML Has 8 Subtypes – MO To M7 Based On The Ratio Of Healthy And Unhealthy Cells, Chromosome Changes In Mutated Cells And Other Genetic Faults. This Staging Method Is Called The FAB Or French, American And British Classification.

MO

AML With Minimal Differentiation Or FAB M0 Does Not Present With Large Numbers Of Abnormal Cells.

M1

Acute Myeloblastic Leukaemia Without Maturation Or FAB M1 On Your Medical Report Means That Some Myeloid Cells Are Not Maturing Into Functional Cells But Are Not Completely Undeveloped.

M2

If Your Report Mentions FAB M2 Or Acute Myeloblastic Leukaemia With Maturation Points To A Change In The Chromosomes Of Some Myeloid Cells.

M3

Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia Or FAB M3 Is Named After The Type Of Immature White Blood Cells That Have Different Chromosomes And Cannot Develop Into More Mature Forms. This Type Can Be Treated By A Different Type Of Chemotherapy That Contains High Quantities Of Vitamin A.

M4

Acute Myelomonocytic Leukaemia Is Associated With A Very Rapid Rise In Immature Myeloblasts To Over 20% Of The Total Blood Cell Volume. This Rare Type Of AML Is Most Often Seen In Adults Over 60 Years Of Age And In Children Of Asian Or Hispanic Descent, Although Anyone Can Be Affected.

M5

Acute Monocytic Leukaemia Refers To The Abnormal, Immature Cell Type (Monoblast) That Is Caused By Changes In The Chromosomes. 

M6

Acute Erythroid Leukaemia, Erthyroleukaemia And Mixed Forms Of These Two Types Increase The Numbers Of Immature Red Blood Cells. This Type Usually Affects Elderly Males.

M7

Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukaemia Is Known To Most Commonly Present In Children Under 4 Years Old With Down Syndrome And Is Very Rare. This Type Can Significantly Lower The Levels Of Mature Red Blood Cells And Platelets And Lead To Easy Bruising And Bleeding.

CML staging 

Because Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia Progresses Much More Slowly Than Acute Forms, Staging Tends To Look More At The Progression First, Rather Than The Cell Types; You May Therefore See Phrases Such As Chronic, Accelerated Or Blastic On Your Medical Report.

In The Chronic Phase, Less Than 10% Of Your Blood Cells Are Abnormal. Your Oncologist Will Probably Ask You To Come In For Blood Tests Throughout The Year But May Not Start Treatment. In The Accelerated Phase, The Percentage Of Abnormal Cells Can Increase To Up To 19%. The Blastic Phase Refers To Abnormal Cells Making Up More Than 20% Of Your Total Blood Cells In The Presence Of Symptoms. Treatment For CML Is Usually Started In The Accelerated Stage. When Detected At A Later Stage, Treatment Must Be Started As Soon As Possible.

A Further CML Stage Is The Relapsed Stage. This Means That, After Successful Treatment, The Numbers Of Abnormal Cells Once More Begin To Increase.

CLL Staging

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia Uses Yet Another Staging Process – The Binet System. This Involves Three Stages (A, B And C) And Refers To The Number Of Affected Lymph Nodes (Adenopathy). All 3 Include Higher Numbers Of White Blood Cells (Lymphocytes).

Stage A Describes Less Than 3 Groups Of Enlarged Lymph Nodes, Stage B More Than 3 Groups Of Enlarged Lymph Nodes, And Stage C Refers To The Enlargement Of The Spleen (Or Lymph Nodes) In Combination With Low Numbers Of Red Blood Cells Or Blood Platelets.  

Another Method Of CLL Staging Is The Rai System That Is Categorised Into 5 Stages:

  • Stage 0: Symptom-Free With High Lymphocyte Levels.

  • Stage I: High Lymphocyte Levels And Swollen Lymph Nodes.

  • Stage II:  High Lymphocyte Levels And Enlarged Liver Or Spleen.

  • Stage III: High Lymphocytes Levels That Affect The Numbers Of Red Blood Cells. You Blood Test Results Will Show That You Are Anaemic. Possible Lymph Node Swelling Or Enlarged Liver Or Spleen.

  • Stage IV: Low Red Blood Cell (Anaemia) And Platelet (Bruising) Levels Due To High Lymphocyte Levels, Possible Lymph Node Swelling And/Or Large Liver And/Or Spleen

Hodgkin lymphoma staging

Hodgkin Lymphoma Staging Can Be Confusing As Different Scales Are Used For Different Symptoms And Locations. The First Method Is The Lugano Classification With 4 Stages. Stage I Tells Us That Only One Lymph Node Or Lymph Organ Is Affected. Stage II Refers To 2 Or More Lymph Nodes On The Same Side Of The Diaphragm. Stage III To Lymph Nodes Or Organs On Both Sides Of The Diaphragm, And Stage IV To Wider Spread To The Liver, Lungs Or Bone Marrow.

Additionally, The Lugano Classification May End In An A, B Or E. A Means None Of The Symptoms Listed Under B. B Includes 3 Symptoms Of Unexplained Fever, Night Sweats And Unexplained Weight Loss Over 6 Months. The Letter E Tells Us That Hodgkin Lymphoma Has Reached An Organ That Is Close To An Affected Lymph Node.

If The Word Bulky Has Been Written On Your Medical Report, This Means A Larger Tumour.

The Terms Resistant And Progressive Refer To Hodgkin Lymphoma Continuing To Grow Even During Treatment. Recurrent And Relapsed Tell Us That After Responding To Previous Treatment, The Disease Has Now Returned.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma staging

Non-Hodgkin Also Uses The Lugano Classification Described In The Previous Section. Additionally, The Letter S Indicates Involvement Of The Spleen. Other Stages List Low Grade (Slow Growth), Intermediate Grade (Moderate Growth) And High Grade (Rapid Growth). All Types Usually Respond To Treatment.

Multiple myeloma staging

Your Medical Report May Include One Of 4 Multiple Myeloma Stages: O To IV. Stage 0 Or Asymptomatic Multiple Myeloma Grows Slowly And Shows Certain Proteins Called Monoclonal Proteins And Higher Levels Of Plasma Cells In Blood Test Or Bone Marrow Results. Treatment Is Usually Not Necessary But Regular Testing Is. Stage I Means Myeloma Cells Are Present As Well As A Protein Called Beta-2 Microglobulin. Stage II Tells Us That The Multiple Myeloma Is Somewhere Between Stages I And III. Finally, Stage 3 Involves High Levels Of Both Myeloma Cells And Beta-2 Microglobulin And Low Levels Of Another Protein Called Albumin.

What are blood cancer symptoms?

If You Are Reading This Page, You May Have Been Diagnosed With Blood Cancer Due To The Presence Of One Or More Symptoms. Symptoms Usually Occur When Blood Cancer Cells Crowd Out Other Blood Cells Or Affect Other Organs. 

If Your Blood Cancer Has Been Diagnosed Before Any Symptoms Appear, The Chances Are High That You Are In The Early Stages Of The Disease. Coincidental Discovery Of Blood Cancer During Routine Blood Tests Is Common.

Symptoms Of Blood Cancer Often Depend On The Blood Cells That Are Either In Short Supply Or Are Immature.

Low White Blood Cell Counts Will Lead To Frequent Infections, Fatigue, Fever, Sweating And Skin Rashes. You May Or May Not Have Swollen Lymph Glands In The Neck, Armpits Or Groin.

Low Platelet Counts Mean Easy Bruising And Slow Healing; If You Accidentally Cut Yourself, You May Bleed For Longer Than Usual.

Low Red Blood Cell Counts Lead To Anaemia. You May Look Pale And Have Very Little Energy. As Red Blood Cells Carry Oxygen To The Tissues Of The Body, You Could Experience Shortness Of Breath And Feel Extremely Weak.

More Generalised Symptoms Are Loss Of Appetite, Bone Pain, Nausea And Weight Loss. An Enlarged Spleen Or Liver May Be Visible Or Palpable.

Can I prevent blood cancer?

Blood Cancer Is Caused By Damage To Blood Cell DNA. This Is The Combined Result Of Your Genetic Makeup, Your Environment And Your Lifestyle.

One Of The Most Damaging Lifestyle Habits Is Smoking. Stopping Smoking And Avoiding Areas Where Indoor Smoking Occurs Is Extremely Important When You Want To Lower The Risk Of Any Type Of Cancer. This Also Applies To Excessive Alcohol Use. 

Care Should Be Taken When Exposed To Certain Chemicals Such As Formaldehyde And Benzene. If You Work In An Environment Where Chemicals Are Used, Use Specialised Breathing Equipment Where This Is Available. If Your Work Involves Chemicals And You Are Not Offered Sufficient Health And Safety Advice, Take The Time To Look Into Any Risks And Follow The Guidelines Of Companies That Adhere To Strict Occupational Health Standards.

If You Live In An Area Of High Pollution, Moving To A Greener Area May Lower Risk. In Addition, Buying An Electrically-Powered Car And Keeping Vehicle Windows Closed When On Busy Highways Can Lower The Levels Of Those Pollutants Responsible For Some Forms Of Blood Cancer.

Exposure To Radiation Is Also A Risk Factor For Blood Cancer. Those Who Have Previously Undergone Cancer Treatment And Have Absorbed Significant Levels Of Radiation May Be More Likely To Develop Blood Cancer At A Later Stage. While Certain Dietary Supplements Are Advertised As Anti-Cancer Therapies, Their Actions As Antioxidants Are Minimal. Reducing Airborne Pollutants Is Key To Lowering The Risk Of Developing Any Type Of Blood Cancer, While Remaining Healthy Through Regular Exercise And A Varied Diet Low In Processed Foods Means Our Bodies Are Able To Respond More Effectively When In The Presence Of Toxins.

Unlike Many Other Forms Of Cancer, Six-Monthly Blood Tests Can Trace Blood Cancer In Its Early Stages. If You Are Over 60 Years Of Age, Smoke, Have An Unhealthy Weight And/Or Unhealthy Eating Habits Or Live Or Work In A High-Risk Environment, Asking Your General Practitioner To Add Certain Blood Cancer Tests To Your Annual Or Biannual Check-Up Can Mean An Earlier And Easier To Treat Diagnosis.

How is blood cancer diagnosed?

The First Step Towards Diagnosing Blood Cancer Is Usually In Response To Your Reporting One Or More Symptoms To Your General Practitioner Or When Routine Blood Tests Show Low Blood Counts. The Blood Tests That Initially Point To A Possible Blood Cancer Diagnosis Are The Complete Blood Count (CBC), Blood Clotting Tests (PT, PTT) And Blood Chemistry Tests. If You Also Present With Other Risk Factors Such As Previous Cancer Treatment, He Or She Will Arrange For Further Tests To Rule Out Or Confirm A Blood Cancer Diagnosis. These Tests Are:

  • Blood Smear. The Laboratory Looks At Your Blood Cells Under A Microscope To See Whether You Have An Overly High Percentage Of Immature Cells Or If Any Cells Look Abnormal.

  • Bone Marrow Aspiration. The Doctor Inserts A Fine Needle Into The Hip Bone And Removes A Small Sample Of Bone Marrow. Bone Marrow Is Liquid In Form. This Is Not A Pleasant Test And Those Who Have Experienced It Report A Sense Of Pressure And Short-Lived Pain Lasting 3 To 5 Seconds, Even When A Local Anaesthetic Is Used.

If Blood Cancer Is Confirmed, You Will Be Sent For Further Testing. One Or More Of The Following Tests Will Be Advised:

  • Medical Imaging Tests Look To See If Bone Marrow Cancer Has Spread To Other Organs Or To View The Lymph Nodes, Liver And Spleen. The Most Common Medical Imaging Tests Are Ultrasound, CT, MRI And Dotatate-PET.

  • Lumbar Puncture Proceeds In Very Much The Same Way As Spinal Anaesthesia But Without The Injection Of An Anaesthetic. A Needle Is Inserted Into The Cerebrospinal Fluid Via The Spine And A Sample Of This Fluid Is Removed To See If Blood Cancer Has Spread.

  • Cytogenic Testing Or Karyotyping Looks At The Chromosomes In Abnormal Blood Cell DNA. This Test Is Necessary For Determining Which Treatments Best Suit A Particular Cancer Type.

  • An Additional Method Of Determining The Correct Treatment Is Flow Cytometry Immunophenotyping. This Test Looks In More Detail At Unusual Substances On The Blood Cell Surface And Is Important For Treatment Pathways That Include Targeted Therapy.

  • Lymph Node Biopsies Rule Out Or Confirm Lymphoma Or Cancer Spread Into Other Organs. This Procedure Is Carried Out By Inserting A Fine, Hollow Needle Under Ultrasound Guidance. For Deeper-Lying Lymph Nodes, Surgery May Be Required.

  • Bone Density Scans Are Carried Out To Stage Blood Cancer And Are Also Prescribed If Other Test Results Are Not Clear.

  • Biomarker Testing Is A More Recent Test That Gives More Data Concerning A Cancer’s Predicted Behaviour In Response To Various Treatments. This Is A Form Of Personalised Medicine That Means Blood Cancer Patients Are Treated As Individuals. Biomarker Tests Look For Mutations In Certain Cells That Might Improve Or Lower The Effect Of A Specific Therapy. It Is Then Possible To Integrate A Fairly New Group Of Drugs That Reduce Or Reverse Undesired Responses. These Drugs Are Collectively Known As Targeted Therapies.

How is blood cancer treated?

Different Types Of Blood Cancer Require Different Types Of Treatment; However, Nearly All Treatments Centre On Chemotherapy. Surgery To Remove The Spleen (Splenectomy) May Be Advised If The Spleen Is Enlarged. This Is Due To Large Numbers Of Abnormal Cells Clogging Up The Filtering And Storage Systems Of This Organ And Forcing It To Reject Healthy Blood Cells. Another Surgical Option Is A Lymphadenectomy Or The Removal Of Affected Lymph Nodes.

Most Blood Cancers Are Treated In Three Stages. The First Stage - Remission Induction - Aims To Destroy Immature Cancerous Cells In The Bone Marrow And Improve The Ratios Of Healthy To Unhealthy Cells. This Stage Should Relieve Any Symptoms Caused By The Cancer. The Second Stage Is Consolidation That Continues To Destroy Any Remaining Abnormal Cells. Treatment Pathways Are Similar To Remission Induction But Doses Are Often Lower And The Side Effects Much Less Uncomfortable. After These Initial Treatments, Most Blood Cancers Require Maintenance Therapy That Can Last Anywhere Up To 3 Years.

Chemotherapy for blood cancer

Chemotherapy Is By Far The Most Common Treatment Used For All Types Of Blood Cancer; However, Different Cancer Cell Types Do Not All Respond In The Same Way And Different Combinations Of Chemotherapy Drugs Are Used For The Varying Types Of Blood Cancer. 

Intravenous Chemotherapy Drugs Are Administered Intravenously Via A Portacath, PICC Line Or Central Venous Catheter. Lower Doses Can Be Given In Pill Form. Treatments Last For As Long As It Takes For A Response; Some Types Of Blood Cancer Will Go In Remission After 1 Or 2 Cycles. Some Require 10 To 12 Cycles. A Cycle Consists Of Chemotherapy And A Rest Period Of 3 To 4 Weeks. This Means That Treatment Can Go On For Many Months. After Each Cycle, Further Tests Will Show Whether The Cancer Is Gone, Reduced, Controlled, Unaffected Or Re-Emerging. Only Then Is It Possible To Know If Another Cycle Is Required.

Ask Remedazo For More Information Regarding Long-Term Stays Where All Of Your Physical, Psychological And Emotional Needs Are Catered For During This Stressful Time. Alternatively, We Can Arrange Similar Accommodation And Familiar, Trusted Team Members For Regular Returns To Your Clinic Of Choice And Cater For Your Accompanying Family Members Or Friends. Naturally, Your Care Will Be Overseen By A Consulting Oncologist With In-Depth Knowledge Of The Latest Drug Combinations And Treatments For All Types Of Blood Cancer. We Also Help You To Access Skilled Medical Teams Equipped With Empathic Staff, The Best Equipment, Extensive Stocks Of Sometimes Hard To Obtain Pharmaceuticals, And High-Quality Materials.

Radiation therapy for blood cancer

Radiation Therapy Has More Than One Role To Play In The Treatment Of Blood Cancers. Although It Destroys Cancer Cells, In Most Blood Cancers These Are Scattered Throughout The Blood And Lymph Systems. However, Structures That Contain Larger Populations Can Be Treated With Radioactivity. The Spleen, Liver And Lymph Nodes Are All Radiation Targets. In Addition, Where Bones Have Become Damaged From Blood Cancer Cells, Radiation Therapy Can Treat Bone Pain.

Radiotherapy Therapy For Blood Cancer Is Composed Of Two Main Types – External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) And Stereotactic Body Radiation (SBRT). If Blood Cancer Recurs After A First Successful Treatment, Other Relatively Recent Drugs Known As Radiopharmaceuticals May Be Advised. These Are Injected Drugs That Contain Radioactive Substances And Settle In Areas Of Damaged Bone. Here, They Emit Radiation That Kills Cancer Cells.

External Beam Radiation Therapy Focuses Beams Of Radiation Into The Blood And Requires Short (30 Minute) Visits To The Hospital 5 Times A Week For Several Weeks. Long-Term Stays With All Transportation, Support, Accommodation And Meals Can Be Seamlessly Arranged By The Remedazo Team. EBRT Is A Painless Treatment And Recent Technology Now Enables Oncologists To Be Even More Precise With Dosage And Range. Additional Options Such As Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy Or 3D-CRT Use Computers To Map The Affected Blood(S) And Shape The Radiation Beams To Avoid Damaging Non-Cancerous Tissues. The Even More Advanced Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Machine Moves Around The Patient, Shapes The Beams And Adjusts Radiation Intensities. This May Be Done With Built-In Scanners (Image Guided Radiation Therapy Or IGRT) Or Using A More Rapid But Not Necessarily More Effective Technique Called Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Or VMAT. You Will Be Able To Discuss All Of These Alternatives With A Remedazo Oncology Specialist.

The Side Effects Of Radiation Therapy Often Depend On Its Effects Upon Healthy Tissues That Are Found Close To The Lymph Nodes, Spleen Or Liver. In Addition, Radiation Treatments Can Make You Feel Tired For Weeks To Months. At Remedazo, All Associated Information Will Be Given Upon Or Shortly After Your Consultation; You Can Then Make An Informed Decision Regarding The Types Of Radiotherapy Available To You.

Blood cancer immunotherapy

Immunotherapy Or Biotherapy Allows Your Immune System To Respond To The Presence Of Specific Cancer Cells And Attack Them. Often, This Response Is Absent During Cancer Growth. It Has Been Shown That Some Blood Cancers Respond Well To Immunotherapy Treatment But This Certainly Does Not Apply To All. Ask About Immunotherapy Options During Your Free Second Opinion.

Four Types Of Immunotherapy Drugs That Have Shown Extremely Positive Effects In The Treatment Of Blood Cancers. Most Of These Are Intravenous Treatments That Require At Least A 4-Hour Stay In A Clinical Setting Up To 5 Times A Week. These Treatments Can Continue For Several Weeks Or Even Years When Used As Part Of Your Maintenance Therapy Program.

Cytokines Such As Interferon And Interleukin Can Significantly Slow Down Cancer Growth. Immunomodulators That Prevent Cancer Cells From Dividing And Communicating With Each Other Include Drugs Such As Thalidomide. Monoclonal Antibodies Bind To Cancer Cells And Allow Your Immune System To Recognise And Destroy Them. Finally, CAR-T (Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cells) Gene Therapy – A Recently Approved Treatment – Has Presented Some Extremely Positive Outcomes. This Treatment Involves The Insertion Of Genetic Material Into Immune-System Cells In A Laboratory. The Insertion Of New Genetic Information Enables Them To Target And Destroy Cancer Cells. Even Terminal Cases Of Lymphoma Have Been Cured With This Exciting Scientific Breakthrough. 

The Side Effects Of Immunotherapy Are Many And Can Be Serious. Those Offered This Type Of Treatment Are Given In-Depth Information Regarding Side Effects And The Detection Of Their Early Signs. Remedazo Can Put You In Touch With One Of Our Specialist Oncologists To Discuss Your Eligibility For Immunotherapy Based Upon Your Personal Medical History.

Blood cancer targeted therapy

Targeted Therapies Are Receiving More And More Interest In Scientific Communities And Represent Yet Another Breakthrough In The Race To Cure Cancer. Finally, We Are Working Towards Highly Personalised Medical Treatments Based Upon Our Genetic Information And That Of The Abnormal Cells Inside Us. It Is An Exciting Time For Scientists Who Are Discovering Further Areas In Which Drugs Can Control, Slow, Temporarily Halt And Even Permanently Stop Cancer Growth.

While Immunotherapy Improves Our Internal Immunity To Help Us Fight Cancer, Targeted Therapies Attack Cancer Cells Directly. They Are Commonly Used In The Treatment Of Blood Cancers And Include Monoclonal Antibodies, And Tyrosine Kinase, Histone Deacetylase, Proteasome And Hypermethylation Inhibitors.

As With Immunotherapies, These Drugs Have Their Own Lists Of Associated Side Effects; However, Their Value In The Treatment Of Blood Cancer Is Evident. Targeted Therapies Are Not Used As A Stand-Alone Therapy But Increase The Effects Of Chemotherapy And Significantly Improve Outcomes. As Personalised Drugs, Your Cancer Cell Type Must Be Sensitive To The Action Of One Or More Of These Drugs. 

Monoclonal Antibodies Are Cloned Copies Of A Single Type Of Antibody. While They Are Classified As Immunotherapy Drugs For Assistance With Cancer Cell Recognition, They Also Block Some Cancer Cell Proteins, Stopping Them From Multiplying. Commonly Used Monoclonal Antibodies In The Treatment Of Blood Cancer Are Ipilimumab And Pembrolizumab. These Drugs Are Administered Intravenously.

Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) Stop 1 Or More Chemicals That Instruct Cancer Cells To Multiply. Examples Are Imatinib Mesylate And Nilotinab. TKIs Are Oral Medications That Do Not Require A Hospital Stay But As With All Targeted Therapy Drugs, Their Use Insists Upon Regular Monitoring By An Experienced Oncologist.

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDIs) Stimulate The Early And Natural Death Of Cancer Cells By Affecting Their DNA. An Example Of This Drug Category Is Valproic Acid. Hypermethylation Inhibitors – Also Known As Tumour Suppressors – Similarly Change A Tiny Part Of The DNA Of The Cancer Cell, Leading To Cell Death. Alternatively, Bortezomib Is A Proteasome Inhibitor Often Used For The Treatment Of Multiple Myeloma And Some Forms Of Lymphoma. This Drug Damages Cancer Cells; Once Damage Has Occurred, The Targeted Cell Will Die. 

Stem cell transplant for blood cancer

You Will Find Detailed Information On Stem Cell And Bone Marrow Transplants Here. Cell Transplants Are Well Known For Their Many Unpleasant Side Effects But Can Deliver Excellent Results. Particularly In The Treatment Of Blood Cancers, Bone Marrow Transplants After Initial Chemotherapy Can Be Curative. You Will Need To Discuss Your Eligibility For This Treatment Type; It Is Not Recommended For Those In Poor Health Due To The High Physical Demands Of This Long-Term Therapy.

How is leukaemia treated?

If You Have Been Diagnosed With Leukaemia, Your Treatment Pathway Depends Upon The Type And Stage Of Your Cancer, As Well As Upon Your Level Of Health. As Already Mentioned, Blood Cancer Treatment Is A Long-Term Commitment And A Partnership Between You And Your Medical Team That Demands Both Psychological And Emotional Support. 

Treatment of acute forms of leukaemia

Adult And Paediatric ALL And AML Are Usually Treated Using Similar Therapy Pathways, Although Children Often Tend To Respond More Rapidly And Rarely Undergo Radiotherapy.

Remission Induction Therapy Involves Combination Chemotherapy, Steroid Drugs, Oral Targeted Therapy (Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor For Philadelphia-Positive Cancer), Antibiotics, Red Blood Cell And Platelet Transfusions, Protective Intrathecal (Into The Spine) Or Intravenous Central Nervous System Therapy, And In Adults Only, Possible Radiation Therapy To The Brain.

Once The Disease Has Responded To Remission Induction Therapy, You Will Need To Undergo Further Chemotherapy Or A Bone Marrow Or Stem Cell Transplant. A Successful Transplant Means That Maintenance Therapy Is Not Required.

Maintenance Therapy In The Form Of Oral And Intravenous Chemotherapy (Low Dose) And Steroids Can Last For 1 To 3 Years And Is Prescribed In Short Cycles Or Blocks Every 1 To 2 Months. If The Cancer Is Philadelphia-Chromosome Positive, Oral Targeted Therapy Further Improves Outcome.

If Leukaemia Recurs, Treatment Consists Of An Initial Course Of Chemotherapy Or Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Before Stem Cell Transplant. It Is Likely That Radiation Therapy And Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Drugs (Targeted Therapy) Will Also Be Prescribed.

Treatment of chronic forms of leukaemia

Chronic Forms Of Leukaemia Are Usually Detected In Older Adults And Can Progress Extremely Slowly. This Is Why The First Step Is Often Watchful Waiting With Regular Blood Tests And Medical Imaging To Monitor The Disease. Should Abnormal Blood Cell Populations Start To Increase, Therapy Can Be Initiated.

The First Step In The Treatment Of Active CML And CLL Is Chemotherapy Using A Combination Of Oral And Intravenous Cytotoxic Drugs For Approximately 1 Month. Intravenous Drugs Often Require An Overnight Hospital Stay. In Addition, Steroids May Be Prescribed To Help You Avoid Some Of The Side Effects Associated With Chemotherapy Drugs. Antibiotics Will Also Be Administered To Reduce The Risk Of Infection.

Another Mode Of Treatment Is The Bone Marrow Transplant That Requires An Initial Chemotherapy Course And Can Be Curative.

Radiotherapy Is Used To Shrink Enlarged Glands Or Organs Such As The Lymph Nodes And Spleen, While Red Blood Cell And Platelet Transfusions Are Often Necessary To Increase Healthy Blood Cell Populations. In Addition, A Medication Known As Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Or G-CSF Can Help To Increase Your White Blood Cell Count.

Once The Abnormal Cells In The Blood Have Been Destroyed, Maintenance Therapy Is Necessary. This Continues For Approximately 2 Years. Maintenance Most Commonly Consists Of A Combination Of Chemotherapy And An Immunotherapy Monoclonal Antibody Drug Such As Rituximab. Targeted Therapy May Also Be Advised. As Cancer-Fighting Drugs Are Constantly Evolving It Is Important That Your Oncologist Is Up To Date With The Latest Treatment Pathways. Remedazo Is Proud To Work With Multiple Consultant Oncologists, All Of Whom Possess Broad Knowledge Of Both Traditional, Recent And Developing Therapies.

MDS treatment

Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treatment Involves Supportive Care That Reinstates Healthy Populations Of Blood Cells Through Red Blood Cell, White Blood Cell And/Or Platelet Transfusions. In Addition, Certain Drugs May Be Given That Stimulate Red Blood Cell Production – These Are Known As Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents Or ESAs. Supportive Care Also Means Avoiding Infection, For Which Antibiotics Can Be Administered. For MDS Types That Are More Likely To Evolve Into Acute Myeloid Leukaemia, Chemotherapy Is Advised.

Stem Cell Treatment Works Best When MDS Is Not Caused By Earlier Cancer Therapies. When This Is Not The Case, Initial Chemotherapy Preceding Stem Cell Transplant Can Be Curative.

How is lymphoma treated?

Unlike Other Blood Cancer Types, Some Cases Of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Are Cured After Biopsy Or Surgery Without The Need For Further Treatment. The Level Of Success Depends Upon The Stage And Spread Of The Disease. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment May Also Involve Watchful Waiting With Regular Blood Tests And Medical Imaging. Should The Cancer Begin To Grow At A More Rapid Rate, Oral Or Intravenous Chemotherapy, Steroids And/Or Radiation Are Prescribed. Radiation Works Most Effectively In Early-Stage Disease And This Form Of Treatment Continues For Up To 3 Weeks. You Will Need To Visit The Hospital Every Day During This Time. Protection Of The Central Nervous System Through The Injection Of Chemotherapy Drugs Into The Spine (Intrathecal Injection) May Also Be Advised. 

The Latest Immunotherapies And Targeted Therapies Are Now Becoming Standard In The Treatment Of A Broad Range Of Cancers, Including Lymphoma. You Can Discuss All Available Treatment Methods With Haematology And Oncology Specialists During Your Free Remedazo Second Opinion.

Hodgkin Lymphoma Can Often Be Treated With Great Success - And Cured - With A Course Of Intravenous Chemotherapy And Steroids. In Some Cases, Additional Radiotherapy Is Prescribed. Stem Cell Transplants Are Similarly Achieving Positive Results.

Where Hodgkin Lymphoma Is At A Later Stage, Longer-Term Oral Chemotherapy Can Significantly Slow Disease Progression.

How is multiple myeloma treated?

As With Chronic Forms Of Blood Cancer And Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, It Is Possible That An Initial Diagnosis With Multiple Myeloma Does Not Require Treatment.

When Regular, Scheduled Blood And Urine Tests Show That Cancer Cells Are Starting To Multiply, Treatment Is Initiated With New Intravenous And Oral Targeted Therapy Drugs. These Include Bortezomib, Carfilzomib And Ixazomib, Or Specific Monoclonal Antibodies. Pharmaceutical Therapy Is Often Enough To Control Multiple Myeloma. As With Other Blood Cancer Treatment Pathways, Steroids Can Help With Unpleasant Side Effects But Also Play A Supportive Role With Various Therapy Types.

The Combination Of Chemotherapy And Subsequent Bone Marrow Transplant Is Becoming Increasingly Popular Due To Its Ability To Cure Many Specific Blood Cancers But Is Not Always Recommended In Older Patients As These Treatments Are Associated With Long Treatment Times And Many Side Effects. At Remedazo, You Can Discuss Your Eligibility During Free Second Opinion Sessions With Renowned Cancer Specialists.

Where Tumours Attack The Bone And Cause Pain, Radiotherapy Is The Treatment Of Choice. This Treatment Can Target Specific Areas Of Affected Bone And Lower Levels Of Discomfort Or Pain, As Does The Administration Of Radiopharmaceuticals.

Why do I need blood cancer treatment?

Treatment Is Essential For All Acute Forms Of Blood Cancer. As The Populations Of Immature Blood Cells Increase, Healthy Cells Are Unable To Compete With Serious Symptoms As A Result. Even In Early-Stage Chronic Disease, Regular Monitoring Is Extremely Important. Furthermore, Many Forms Of Blood Cancer Can Be Cured, Even Those In More Advanced Stages.

Blood Cancer Treatment Is A Long-Term Commitment, Combining Therapies That Themselves Cause Damage To Healthy Cells. By Consulting An Empathic, Knowledgeable And Experienced Oncologist Who Is Extremely Familiar With Effective Therapy Pathways And Up To Date With Current Clinical Trials, Your Treatment Can Be Personalised To Achieve The Best Possible Outcome. A Holistic Approach In Combination With World-Renowned Physicians, Excellently Equipped Hospitals, Evidence-Based Therapies And Regular Follow-Ups Is Guaranteed At Remedazo. Our Goal Is To Ensure Your Comfort During This Difficult Time, Meaning You Can Concentrate On Your Recovery.

How do I prepare for blood cancer treatment? What can I expect?

Approximately 4 Weeks Before Your Blood Cancer Treatment You Will Be Asked To Supply The Results Of Your Blood And Diagnostic Tests And Copies Of Any Applicable Imaging Results (CT, MRI And/Or PET). This Means We Can See How Your Blood Cancer Is Progressing And Help Us To Advise The Best Treatment Options. We Will Also Need Any Information Regarding Medication Use, Other Illnesses Or Disorders And Your Overall State Of Health.

You Will Need To Undergo An MRI Or CT Scan And Possibly A Bone Scan – If These Have Not Yet Taken Place - Which Will Help Us To See Whether Your Spleen, Bones Or Lymph Nodes Have Been Affected. In Early Chronic Blood Cancer, This Is Usually Not The Case; However, A Complete Diagnostic Check Up Can Help Us And Your Doctors At Home To Precisely Monitor Any Future Changes.

As The Majority Of Acute Or Potentially Acute Blood Cancer Treatments Involve Chemotherapy And Often A Long Stay In Hospital, You Should Arrange Time Off Work And, Where Necessary, Request Assistance From Family Members And Friends Or Employ Childcare Or Housekeeping Staff. Think About How You Might Spend Your Time In The Hospital; Chemotherapy Can Make You Extremely Tired But Time Will Go By Much More Quickly With Some Distractions. Consider Who You Would Like To Accompany You If This Is At All Possible, And Perhaps Download Favourite Books, Games And Television Shows On A Laptop (Paper Versions Of Books And Magazines Are Difficult To Wash And Could Be An Potential Source Of Infection). Remedazo Works Together With Outstanding Hospitals That Provide Comfortable, Well-Equipped And Private Accommodation; However, It Is Always A Good Idea To Bring Along A Personal Selection Of Your Favourite Pastimes.

Try To Avoid Contact With People Who Are Ill Whenever Possible. Maintaining Your Weight By Eating A Healthy Diet Will Also Lower Your Risk Of Infection. It Is Now Time To Put Yourself Into Remedazo’s Attentive Hands. We Can Arrange Every Aspects Of Your Stay According To Your Emotional, Psychological And Physical Preferences And Requirements, As Well As According To Your Budget. With Remedazo, All You Have To Think About Is Your Recovery.

Benefits of blood cancer treatment

The Benefits Of Blood Cancer Treatment Very Often Include Cure Or Remission, Even In Later-Stage Disease. A Broad Range Of New, Personalised, Supplementary Therapies Are Producing Increasingly Efficient Chemotherapy Results, While The Many Positive Outcomes Achieved Through The Combination Of Chemotherapy And Stem Cell Transplants Are Extremely Encouraging.

Remission Rates For Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, For Example, Have Tripled In The Past 40 Years With Over 60% Living With Or Being Cured Of The Disease 10 Years After Diagnosis. Furthermore, Approximately 98% Of Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Go Into Remission Within Just A Few Weeks Of Starting Treatment, And Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia Has A Remission Rate Of Over 70%. As The Scientific World’s Understanding Of Cancer Deepens, So The Oncologist’s Choice Of Treatments Increases And A Global Cure For Cancer Becomes Reality.

Disadvantages of blood cancer treatment

The Most Commonly Reported Disadvantages Of Blood Cancer Treatment Are The Length And Associated Side Effects Of The Various Treatment Pathways. While More Recent Breakthroughs Allow Doctors To Use Drugs That Only Attack Cancer Cells, Chemotherapy Is Still An Essential Step That Causes Destruction Not Only To Damaged Cells But Also To Healthy Ones.

Often, The Side Effects Of Blood Cancer Treatment Are Similar To The Symptoms Of More Advanced Blood Cancer. Low Immunity, Anaemia, Fatigue, Nausea, Bruising, Irregular Bowel Movements And Weakness Are Common Experiences Both Before And During Treatment. Many Of These Symptoms Can Be Alieved With Over The Counter Or Prescribed Medication; However, The Negative Effects Of Blood Cancer Therapy Should Not Be Underestimated. 

Another Disadvantage Of Blood Cancer Treatment Is The Length Of Time Required For Induction And Maintenance. All Blood Cancer Initial Treatments Last For Weeks If Not Months And Maintenance, Although Much Less Associated With Side Effects, Can Continue For Years.

As Already Mentioned, Low Immunity Is A Side Effect Of Both Blood Cancer And Its Various Therapies. It Is Often Necessary To Remain In Isolation For A Period Of Time To Avoid The Risk Of Infection. For Many, This Can Be An Extremely Lonely Experience Even Where Modern Technology Allows Us To Enjoy Video-Chats. A Lack Of Human Contact Can Make Blood Cancer Treatment A Psychologically Difficult Time, As Well As A Physically Demanding One. 

Blood cancer alternatives

It Is Possible That You Have Been Given A Choice Of One Or More Alternative Treatments Or Have Not Yet Made An Appointment For Your Free E-Consult And Are Simply Browsing The Possibilities.

The Accepted And Current Blood Cancer Treatment Alternatives Have Been Described In The Necessary Detail Above. Complementary And Alternative Blood Cancer Remedies Are Unproven And Should Not Take The Place Of Accepted Treatment Courses.

Of Course, There Is No Alternative For Professional Medical Advice. Please Call Us To Arrange Your Free E-Consult And The Opportunity To Speak Personally With Specialist Haematologists, Oncologists, Radiologists And Paediatric Oncologists To Determine The Best Treatment Type For You. You Can Discuss All Blood Cancer Treatment Alternatives With Them, Ask For Second Or Third Opinions, And Take The First Step Towards Your Personalised Remedazo Holistic Care Package.

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